[248] The vast majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 per cent from coal and 47 per cent from petroleum. [143][144][145][146], The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. The Qing were again defeated and forced to give up Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island in the Convention of Peking. Non solo in aeroporto, ma anche ovunque strade e marciapiedi hanno segni e segni chiari. [11] Although Hong Kong's economy has ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation's economic freedom index since 1995,[200][201] the territory has a relatively high level of income disparity. Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent,[255] contributing to the high regional average connection speed of 21.9 Mbit/s (the world's fourth-fastest). [142] Sex trafficking in Hong Kong is an issue. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. 563 likes. [73] The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community. [108] The Communist Party does not have an official political presence in Hong Kong, and its members do not run in local elections. [32] The Octopus card, a contactless smart payment card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores. [294], The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English. [75] It does not specify how Hong Kong will be governed after 2047, and the central government's role in determining the territory's future system of government is the subject of political debate and speculation. It is an area on the north shore of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is spoken by 94.6 per cent of the population, 88.9 per cent as a first language and 5.7 per cent as a second language. [302] Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia. [17] By the end of this war, Hong Kong had evolved from a transient colonial outpost into a major entrepôt. The government was forced to use substantial foreign exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar's currency peg during the 1997 Asian financial crisis,[69] and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak[79] and a housing surplus. The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds, and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading. [284] The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup. [76] Over half a million people left the territory during the peak migration period, from 1987 to 1996. And how should we best guess crowd size? Buses and the new tramway would become the main form of transportation in the area.[16]. [75] The impending transfer triggered a wave of mass emigration as residents feared an erosion of civil rights, the rule of law, and quality of life. [121] Although the Chairman of the Central Military Commission is supreme commander of the armed forces,[122] the regional government may request assistance from the garrison. [237] The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a direct route to the western side of the Pearl River estuary. [295] Of residents aged 15 and older, 81.3 per cent completed lower-secondary education, 66.4 per cent graduated from an upper secondary school, 31.6 per cent attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24 per cent earned a bachelor's degree or higher. In 1903, boundary stones were established to mark the city's boundary and six of them are still preserved today. Mwaissès dnêyes. [111] However, mainland criminal procedure law applies to cases investigated by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR. [30] The territory's highest point is Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level. The overwhelming majority (92 per cent) is Han Chinese,[6] most of whom are Taishanese, Teochew, Hakka, and a number of other Cantonese peoples. Mass-produced public-housing estates, built since the 1960s, are mainly constructed in modernist style.[180]. The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. The Immigration Department issues passports for permanent residents which differ from those of the mainland or Macau,[116] and the region maintains a regulated border with the rest of the country. Thence along the west side of Moreton Terrace to the south-east corner of Inland Lot No. [44] As hinted by the archaeological works in Sha Ha, Sai Kung, rice cultivation had been introduced since Late Neolithic period. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow, As Tears Go By, and Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular. [107] These parties have aligned themselves into three ideological groups: the pro-Beijing camp (the current government), the pro-democracy camp, and localist groups. [125] The territory actively participates in the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the International Olympic Committee, and many United Nations agencies. Le tasse sono le minori in tutto il continente asiatico e questa è già un'ottima premessa per fare affari. It is also retained in the names of various organisations such as the Victoria City District of the Hong Kong Scout,[9] and the Victoria Junior Chamber. [189] Followers of other religions, including Sikhism, Hinduism, Judaism, and the Baháʼí Faith, generally originate from regions where their religion predominates. [271] There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh. Although the city expanded over much of what is now Kennedy Town, Sheung Wan, and Wan Chai,[7] the name Victoria has been eclipsed by Central in popular usage. [301] The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the need for a university that taught using Chinese as its primary language of instruction. [175] In 2016, 26.6 million visitors contributed HK$258 billion (US$32.9 billion) to the territory, making Hong Kong the 14th most popular destination for international tourists. [298][299], Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. Hong Kong has the world's largest number of skyscrapers, with 317 towers taller than 150 metres (490 ft),[31] and the third-largest number of high-rise buildings in the world. [118] Public finances are handled separately from the national government; taxes levied in Hong Kong do not fund the central authority. It was initially named Queenstown but was soon known as Victoria. [186] Headline population density of about 6,800 people/km2 does not reflect true densities since only 6.9% of land is residential, the residential average population density calculates closer to a highly cramped 100,000/km2. [26][27] Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes per se,[f] severe income inequality exists, as well as a growing housing affordability and shortage crisis among the population. [74] Diplomatic negotiations with China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the colony in 1997 and China would guarantee Hong Kong's economic and political systems for 50 years after the transfer. Il connaît des étés très chauds et humides et des hivers doux et secs. [134] Although universal suffrage for Chief Executive and all Legislative Council elections are defined goals of Basic Law Articles 45 and 68,[135] the legislature is only partially directly elected and the executive continues to be nominated by an unrepresentative body. [171][172], Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises. Capitale Wine, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. A tech-focused fund. [284] The territory has participated in almost every Summer Olympics since 1952, and has earned three medals. [16] The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade,[58] triggering a British military response and the First Opium War. The territory's 2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands. [44], The Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. Present-day Central is at the heart of Victoria City. "Hong Kong Activists Stare Down 'Great Firewall of China'", Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, "Education in Hong Kong and China: Towards Convergence? [270] Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. The 30 limited electorate functional constituencies fill their seats using first-past-the-post or instant-runoff voting. C'est l'une des zones les plus libérales au monde. Over 100 airlines operate flights from the airport, including locally based Cathay Pacific (flag carrier), Hong Kong Airlines, low-cost airline HK Express and cargo airline Air Hong Kong. [99] Its judicial system is based on common law, continuing the legal tradition established during British rule. [90], Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China, with executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government. There are a total of 479 district council seats, 452 of which are directly elected. In 1857, the British government expanded the scope of Victoria City and divided it into four wans (Chinese: 環; Jyutping: waan4; pinyin: huán; lit. 4. Legal experts split on when Hong Kong should debate its future", "Who goes there? After reversal of the last colonial era Legislative Council democratic reforms following the handover,[82] the regional government unsuccessfully attempted to enact national security legislation pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law. [151], In October 2020, Hong Kong authorities had arrested seven politicians from the pro-democracy camp over its tussles with pro-Beijing politicians during the Legislative Council in May. [70] With a rapidly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and public services. [20][e], Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages,[16] the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. [43], During the Middle Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago, the region had been widely occupied by humans. Typhoons occur most often then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. [221] While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s,[221] late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Today, it maintains its economic independence in many ways. City of Victoria has been the capital since 1997. Capital Group homepage. [109] Hong Kong is represented in the National People's Congress by 36 deputies chosen through an electoral college, and 203 delegates in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference appointed by the central government. Géographie de Hong Kong : nom officiel, capitale, principales villes à Hong Kong, superficie (1.110,00 km²), climat (Composé de plus de 200 îles, le Hong Kong est situé dans la zone subtropicale de la mer de Chine méridionale. [266] Spiritual concepts such as feng shui are observed; large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building positioning and layout. [60], Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by early 1842, but piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies initially prevented the government from attracting commerce. Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes. [167] The lack of available space restricted development to high-density residential tenements and commercial complexes packed closely together on buildable land. [38], The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by 1810. [6] All government bureaux still have their head offices located within its limit. [206] Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP, and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor (Macau). City of Victoria is located at 48.4284° N, 123.3656° W at an elevation of 1811'. [92] Under these terms and the "one country, two systems" principle, the Basic Law of Hong Kong is the regional constitution.[93]. [8] However, the name is still used in places such as Victoria Park, Victoria Peak, Victoria Harbour, Victoria Prison, and a number of roads and streets. Buildings were made of granite and brick. [309], Hong Kong's major English-language newspaper is the South China Morning Post, with The Standard serving as a business-oriented alternative. Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港, Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (listen)), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a metropolitan area and special administrative region of the People's Republic of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta of the South China Sea. [91] The Sino-British Joint Declaration provided for economic and administrative continuity through the transfer of sovereignty,[75] resulting in an executive-led governing system largely inherited from the territory's history as a British colony. While the city of Victoria used to house the capital, it now rests in a central location of Hong Kong. [241], The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53,000 daily passengers. Furthermore, the State Council may enforce national law in the region under specific circumstances. Hong Kong è una delle metropoli più ricche e caratteristiche del pianeta e ultimamente sta facendo molto parlare di sé il suo “rapporto” con la Cina continentale.. L'isola di Hong Kong (香港島 T, 香港岛 S, Xiānggǎng Dǎo P) è un'isola situata nella parte meridionale di Hong Kong.Ha una popolazione di 1.268.112 abitanti e, secondo la stima del 2006, una densità di 15.915 ab./km². [187] Post-handover governments have promoted Mandarin, which is currently about as prevalent as English; 48.6 per cent of the population speaks Mandarin, with 1.9 per cent native speakers and 46.7 per cent speaking it as a second language. The Qing surrendered early in the war and ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. [312] RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels. With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities[d] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Products from mainland China account for about 40 per cent of that traffic. [303] The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,[304] Hong Kong Baptist University,[305] Lingnan University,[306] Education University of Hong Kong,[307] Open University of Hong Kong,[308] Hong Kong Shue Yan University and The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong were all established in subsequent years. "To restore calm in Hong Kong, try democracy", Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election 2016, LegCo and DC Member Political Affiliations 2017, "Legislation Summary: Hong Kong National Security Law", Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance, Constitution of the People's Republic of China, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, "List of Treaties in Force and Applicable to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region", "Ireland suspends its extradition treaty with Hong Kong", "Trump ends preferential economic treatment for Hong Kong", "Meanings of Right of Abode and Other Terms", Immigration Department, "New ways to help Hong Kong's human trafficking victims", "Human trafficking in Hong Kong: hidden in plain sight", "Fed up with human trafficking, Hong Kong migrant workers hold vigil demanding justice", "Hong Kong must lead the fight against human trafficking, rather than just do the bare minimum", "Harsh Penalties, Vaguely Defined Crimes: Hong Kong's Security Law Explained", "Hong Kong National Security Law Promulgated, Came into Effect June 30, 2020", "UK says China's security law is serious violation of Hong Kong treaty", "Hong Kong pro-democracy politicians arrested", "Land Use in Hong Kong 2017", Planning Department, "The Natural Environment, Plants & Animals in Hong Kong", "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884 and 1939 and 1947–2017 for Hong Kong", "Monthly Meteorological Normals for Hong Kong", "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884-1939 and 1947-2017 for Hong Kong", Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong, Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students 2008, "Hong Kong ranked world's freest economy for 18th consecutive year", "Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA)", "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (HK-Macao CEPA)", House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee Tenth Report 2015, "Despite worldwide changes, multinationals focus on mobile workforces to support career growth and ensure competitiveness", NY/NJ Port Authority Airport Traffic 2017, "Ferry Services to Macau and the Mainland Ports", "HKU POP releases survey on Hong Kong people's ethnic identity and the 2018 review and 2019 forecast survey", Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics 2017, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance, The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance, The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance. [3] Traditional Chinese characters are used in writing, rather than the simplified characters used on the mainland. [71][72] Although the territory's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined because of rising labour and property costs, it transitioned to a service-based economy. They were charged with contempt and interfering with members of the council, while none of the pro-Beijing lawmakers were detained. [54], After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies. It is the central business district of Hong Kong, and many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters in the area. [220], The government has had a passive role in the economy. [112][150] The United Kingdom considers the law to be a serious violation of the Joint Declaration. [48] During the Mongol conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court was briefly located in modern-day Kowloon City (the Sung Wong Toi site) before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. [215] Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. Although City of Victoria is not the largest city in Hong Kong, it Houses the government buildings. [269], Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transfer of sovereignty. Au sein de la mégalopole du delta de la Rivière des Perles, elle compte environ sept millions d'habitants que l'on appelle Hongkongais dont l'espérance de vie, de … [277] Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience. [208] Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product increased by a factor of 180, and per capita GDP increased by a factor of 87. [65] The colonial government prepared for a possible attack, evacuating all British women and children in 1940. The claim is based on an archaeological investigation in Wong Tei Tung, Sai Kung in 2003. Hong Kong, capitale mondiale des logements de luxe. [272] Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. [245], The Peak Tram, Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. Similarly, the Chief Executive is selected by establishment politicians and corporate members of the Election Committee rather than directly elected. By the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial centre and shipping hub. [123] Hong Kong residents are not required to perform military service and current law has no provision for local enlistment, so its defence is composed entirely of non-Hongkongers. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. Hong Kong è la città degli affari e del business Hong Kong ogni anno è nella classifica tra le " Best Business City in the World " (migliori città per fare business nel mondo) stilata dalla rivista Business Traveller Asia Pacific. To reduce the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. [247] Hong Kong Tramways covers a portion of Hong Kong Island. [81], Political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region's democratic development and the central government's adherence to the "one country, two systems" principle. The Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. [138][139] Employment vacancies and public service appointments frequently have language requirements which minority job seekers do not meet, and language education resources remain inadequate for Chinese learners. [191] The universal public healthcare system is funded by general-tax revenue, and treatment is highly subsidised; on average, 95 per cent of healthcare costs are covered by the government. [155], Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland. [192], Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people. ", "Controversial joint checkpoint plan approved for high-speed rail link as Hong Kong officials dismiss concerns over legality", "Self-centred, demanding, materialistic and arrogant: how to steer clear of the Kong Girls", "On Deck With China's Last Junk Builders, Masters of an Ebbing Craft", "To restore calm in Hong Kong, try democracy", "We must resist until China gives Hong Kong a say in our future", "What hope for the poorest? [278] The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated Asian record charts. 2016) 7 167 403 hab. [130][131], The territory is divided into 18 districts, each represented by a district council. [22][23] Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments (goods travelling through Hong Kong). [30] The dense space led to a developed transportation network with public transport rates exceeding 90 percent. [171] Bagua mirrors are regularly used to deflect evil spirits,[267] and buildings often lack floor numbers with a 4;[268] the number has a similar sound to the word for "die" in Cantonese. 1 Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance ─ Schedule 1 Boundaries of the City of Victoria, https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap1?xpid=ID_1438402522937_002, "Cap 1 Sched 1 Boundaries of the City of Victoria (Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance)", Volume 22 Inland Revenue Board of Review decisions, CACC186A/1987 The Queen v Currency Brokers (H.K.) Residents predominantly speak, For all government use, documents written using. [282] The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently host musicians and conductors from overseas. Elle a avou leye ene sitindêye di 1.104 km 2,la k' i gn a 7 miyons di dmorants (ene des pus grande dinsité d' djins å monde).On lzès lomreut voltî e walon: Honconkî, Honconcresse. [39] The name was also commonly written as the single word Hongkong until 1926, when the government officially adopted the two-word name. In 1841, Britain took control over the island of Hong Kong. The regional government is composed of three branches: The Chief Executive is the head of government and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. [264], Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour, filial piety, and a preference for sons, are prevalent. [283], Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. [117] Mainland Chinese citizens do not have right of abode in Hong Kong and are subject to immigration controls. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s,[53] Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were re-established by 1549. It is located across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation on the mainland. These advise the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy. [153] Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, and in new towns throughout the New Territories. Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13 per cent by 2015. Prices for Hong Kong's famous Peak Tram to increase for second time in less than two years", "Let Hongkongers serve in China's People's Liberation Army, says top military official", "A case for inclusion: Carrie Lam pledges to tout list of 16 ethnic minority Hongkongers for government advisory positions", "Once the World's Greatest Port, Hong Kong Sinks in Global Ranking", "As Hong Kong goes to the polls, why isn't the Communist Party on the ballot? [55] Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more strictly, restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements. [178], Tong lau, mixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences. [45] Bronze Age Hong Kong was featured with coarse pottery, hard pottery, quartz and stone jewelry, as well as small bronze implements. The coverage also included parts of East Point and Happy Valley (West of Wong Nai Chung Road on the east side of the racecourse). Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public. All remain, except for the one in Magazine Gap Road, which disappeared around mid-June 2007. Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education. [28][29], Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and ranks fourth on the UN Human Development Index. Hong Kong - Capitale dello shopping Hong Kong - attira il maggior numero di turisti rispetto a tutte le altre città al mondo, poiché è la capitale dello shopping dell’Asia nonché la città più costosa della Cina. On the west – A line running due north and south drawn through the north-west angle of Inland Lot No.